Background The study of phenolic compounds profiles and antioxidative activity in

Background The study of phenolic compounds profiles and antioxidative activity in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots with respect to cultivation years, and has been little reported to date. Asian countries for more than 2,000 years [1]. Although ginseng is now distributed in 35 countries, only four countries, China, Korea, Canada, and the USA, are responsible for >99% of the global ginseng production. The global ginseng market is estimated to be worth $2,084 million; in particular, the Korean market is estimated to be worth $1,140 million, which is the biggest market worldwide [2]. Ginseng production in Korea in 2012 was estimated to be 26,057 ton, and fresh ginseng accounted for 50% of this production. A further 44% of the ginseng produced was used for making red ginseng and processed products such as dietary supplements, medicines, drinks, soups, and jellies [2], [3]. Ginseng is known to possess various biological properties and pharmacological properties, such as immunostimulant, anticancer, antiemetic, antioxidant, and antiproliferative properties, as well as other health benefits [4], [5], [6], [7], [8]. These biological and pharmacological properties are strongly related to the phytochemicals present in ginseng, ECGF including saponins, alkaloids, polyacetylenes, polysaccharides, free amino acids, polyphenolics, and volatile compounds such as limonene [9], [10], [11]. In particular, Korean ginseng is known to possess better biological and pharmacological properties than other ginseng species [12]. Recent studies have reported the biological and pharmacological activities of ginseng, especially those of the ginseng root. Furthermore, a variation in the chemical constituents (especially ginsenosides) of the ginseng roots with respect to the processing conditions JNJ-38877605 used in ginseng production has also been reported [13], [14], [15], [16], [17]. However, only a limited number of studies have reported the chemical constituents or biological activity of ginseng flowers, fruit (berry), and/or leaves [18], [19], [20], [21]. The phenolic compounds present in ginseng possess various biological properties such as antioxidant and anticancer properties; however, these compounds are relatively less well known to consumers compared with the ginsenosides that are mostly found in ginseng roots. More than 10 phenolic compounds, including caffeic acid, ferulic acid, vanillic acid, at <35C using a vacuum evaporator (SB-1200, EYELA, Tokyo Rikakikai Co. Ltd., Japan). The residue was reconstituted with 80% aqueous MeOH (5?mL), and then filtered through a 0.2?m syringe filter (17?mm, JNJ-38877605 TITAN, Rockwood, TN, USA). This filtrate was used for the analysis of phenolic compounds present in the ginseng sample and the measurement of the DPPH free-radical-scavenging activity. 2.4. Determination of total phenol content using the Folin-Ciocalteu method The total phenol content of the ginseng samples was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu method [24]. In brief, an aliquot (20?L) of the ginseng sample or a phenolic STD (i.e., gallic acid) was mixed with water (1.58?mL) and the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (100?L). After 8.5?min, a saturated solution of sodium carbonate (300?L) was added to the sample mixture, which was then mixed and stored at room JNJ-38877605 temperature for 2?h. The total phenol content of the ginseng samples was measured using an OPTIZEN POP UV-spectrophotometer (Mecasys Co., Daejeon, Korea) at 765?nm. In this study, the total phenol content of the ginseng samples was expressed as the gallic acid equivalent (GAE, g/g, dry weight basis). An external calibration curve was obtained using 10C1,000?g/mL of gallic acid, and good linearity (> 0.99) over the concentration ranges investigated in this study. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) of JNJ-38877605 the 23 phenolic compounds were determined using each calibration curve as follows: LOD?=?3??SD/S and LOQ?=?10??SD/S, where SD is the standard deviation of a response, and S is the slope of the calibration curve [25]. In this study, the LOD ranged from 0.003 ppm to 0.396 ppm (g/mL) and the LOQ ranged from 0.011 ppm to 1 1.323 ppm (Table 1). Fig.?1 Representative ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) chromatograms of a mixture of the 23 phenolic standard compounds (A) and ginseng samples (BCD; the black solid line indicates the ginseng sample and the red solid line JNJ-38877605 indicates … Table?1 Concentration range, linearity, limit of detection, and limit of quantification of 23 phenolic standards.

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