Objectives The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the anticaries activity of a nanoemulsion composed of soybean oil, water, Triton X-100 and cetylpyridinium chloride. was significantly lower than Control and Chlorhexidine, and Chlorhexidine was significantly lower than Control. Conclusions We conclude that cetylpyridinium-containing nanoemulsions appear to present a feasible means of preventing the occurrence of early caries. (NCTC 10449, ATCC, Manassas, VA) and (NCIB 8820, ATCC, Manassas, VA) culture in Todd Hewitt broth (broth to inoculum ratio 10:1) through the chambers. Inoculation was repeated once daily for two consecutive days. Plaque biofilm formation was confirmed by scanning the surface of two blocks from each group Natamycin (Pimaricin) using confocal microscopy on Day 5. The system was then operated as described above by continuous circulation of Todd Hewitt Broth separately through the three chambers to simulate saliva, and 10% sucrose was supplied every 6 hours for 6 minutes to simulate meals and pH cycling. The pH of plaque in each chamber was monitored at non-feeding time to check maintenance of neutrality by CO2. All fluids, including inoculation, Natamycin (Pimaricin) were delivered at a flow rate of 2ml/min. Change in plaque pH following sucrose supply was monitored on two occasions on the third day to confirm exhibition of Stephan-like curve of pH fall under sucrose challenge. The chambers were accessed individually from the tops. The pH at non-feeding time remained at approximately 6.8; following the supply of sucrose it decreased gradually to as low as 5.2, remained at this level for the remaining part of the 6 minutes. Upon withdrawal of sucrose and re-circulation of broth after 6 minutes, the pH rose gradually to neutrality (6.8) after 45 minutes, but was below 5.5 for 20 minutes. Experimental groups A and B were treated with their respective solutions once daily for 30 seconds on each occasion, while group C received no treatment. The experiment lasted for 5 days, and the tooth blocks were harvested and processed for demineralization assessment using transverse microradiography (TMR). Effect of nanoemulsion on biofilms Since there was full growth of biofilm in group C, we decided to use this group to test the effect of CPC-containing nanoemulsion on the viability of an existing biofilm. Group C was exposed to emulsion for 30 seconds. Following this, biofilm samples were collected from group C tooth slabs at 0 Natamycin (Pimaricin) and 30 seconds, 1 min, 5 min, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min. The collected samples were transferred to sterile polypropylene tubes containing phosphate-buffered saline immediately following collection and were dispersed by sonication (20s) and vigorous vortex mixing (30s). Bacterial viability was assessed by serial dilution, inoculation into culture media, and incubation at 37C and 5% CO2 for 24C48 hours. Transverse Microradiography and image analysis Three tooth slices (~150 m thick) were cut from each tooth block using a water-cooled diamond wire saw (Buehler, Switzerland). These slices were used to determine the Transverse Microradiographic (TMR) parameters (mineral loss (z) and lesion depth (LD)) of the Natamycin (Pimaricin) caries Rabbit polyclonal to AP1S1 lesion as follows. First, both sides of the slice were polished using Adhesive Back 6m lapping film in a MultiPrep? Precision Polishing machine (Allied High Tech, USA) to achieve planoparallel surfaces as well as to reduce the thickness of the slice to 80 m (the appropriate thickness for TMR). Following this, the slices were microradiographed on type lA high resolution glass X-ray Natamycin (Pimaricin) plates (Microchrome Technology, CA, USA) using a Phillips x-ray generator system (Panalytical, Amsterdam) set up for this purpose. The plates were exposed for 10 minutes at an anode voltage.