Supplementary MaterialsS1 Fig: Cell movement relative to cytoplasmic bridges. Shaded areas correspond to standard deviation shapes. At late-inversion stages, the average shapes are very noisy. See S1 Data for numerical values.(TIF) pbio.2005536.s002.tif (1.6M) GUID:?3D661B5E-1773-449D-9B9F-F99D47B941C3 S3 Fig: Alternative averaging approach 2. Alignment of embryos with time stretching and with uniformly distributed averaging points (i.e., with only global scaling of embryos, without relative local stretching of embryo shapes). = 22 overlaid and scaled embryo halves from experimental data (lines in shades of blue), and averages thereof (red lines), for 10 stages of inversion. Shaded areas correspond to standard deviation shapes. Unsatisfactory ‘kinks’ arise in the bend region. See S1 Data for numerical values.(TIF) pbio.2005536.s003.tif (1.5M) GUID:?9D4B1BB1-F382-40CA-8776-7E4DCA2A380A S4 Fig: Comparison of mean shape variation for different averaging methods. Mean shape variation against mean time ?embryo from selective plane illumination imaging of chlorophyll autofluorescence. Left: maximum intensity projection of z-stacks. Right: tracing of midsagittal cross-section (Materials and methods). Scale bar: 50 m.(MP4) pbio.2005536.s005.mp4 (965K) GUID:?2EC3C825-2C8D-41DC-9AE1-BA521A10206F S2 Video: Cell rearrangement at the phialopore. Time-lapse video of the phialopore opening obtained from confocal laser scanning microscopy of chlorophyll autofluorescence and manual tracing of selected cells (Materials and methods). Scale bar: 20 m. The video shows a rearrangement of cells surrounding the phialopore.(MP4) pbio.2005536.s006.mp4 (141K) GUID:?E118E550-ED14-495A-989D-BE7B08FD99D2 S1 Data: Numerical data. Numerical values underlying the shapes and graphs shown in Figs ?Figs4,4, ?,5,5, ?,7,7, ?,88 and ?and1111 in the main text; supplementary figures S2 Fig, S3 Fig, S4 Fig, and figures A1, A2, A3, A4 in S1 Text. Numerical values of the fitting parameters used to obtain Phloridzin kinase inhibitor Fig 7. Additional data for analysis of variability.(XLSX) pbio.2005536.s007.xlsx (1.1M) GUID:?47B647DD-F59F-4AE8-A0B2-21671F5DD918 S2 Data: Raw data for random perturbations. Random perturbations of parameters, corresponding shape variations, and other statistics used for the analysis of variability.(GZ) pbio.2005536.s008.tar.gz (66M) GUID:?6A34192B-A994-4AC6-BC60-CE0D49B03055 S1 Code: Code for tracing embryo shapes. Elements of Python code used for Phloridzin kinase inhibitor semiautomated embryo shape Phloridzin kinase inhibitor tracing.(GZ) pbio.2005536.s009.tar.gz (7.7K) GUID:?2DA6C804-66FF-4F9A-8743-AA4CE21144ED S2 Code: Code for numerical calculations. Elements of Matlab (The MathWorks) code used for numerical solution of the equations governing the model, for aligning shapes, and for fitting shapes.(M) pbio.2005536.s010.m (16K) GUID:?274BDAA9-4E53-49C2-A839-B512AD8EF0D2 S1 Text: Summary statistics and geometric descriptors of inversion. Initial analysis of the variability using summary statistics. Analysis of inversion in terms of six geometric descriptors and comparison of geometric descriptors for averaged and fitted shapes.(PDF) pbio.2005536.s011.pdf (264K) GUID:?6DDE98BD-9BEC-47D4-92D6-2DB98D14EC22 S2 Text: Elastic model in Phloridzin kinase inhibitor the contact configuration. Boundary conditions for the contact configuration. Phloridzin kinase inhibitor Numerical study of the contact configuration. Asymptotic analysis of a toy problem.(PDF) pbio.2005536.s012.pdf (218K) GUID:?D0979957-CF27-42B0-A444-06947FE727D7 Data Availability StatementAll relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. Abstract Variability is emerging as an integral part of development. It is therefore imperative to ask how to access the information contained in this variability. Yet most studies of development average their observations and, discarding the variability, seek to derive models, biological or physical, that explain these average observations. Here, we analyse this variability in a study of cell sheet folding in the green alga turn themselves inside out, results from two separate mechanisms of bending and stretching (expansion and subsequent contraction). Our Rabbit Polyclonal to OR51E1 analysis therefore uncovers a prototypical transition of developmental complexity in and the related volvocine algae, from a morphogenetic process driven by a single mechanism to one driven by two separate mechanisms. This complements the similarly prototypical transition from one cell type to two cell types that has made the volvocine algae a model system for the evolution of multicellularity. Introduction The phenomena are always the same, and this is what matters to us, but their variations, for the greater or for the lesser, are beyond count. Thus opined Xavier Bichat in the account of his investigations into life and death  and thereby spelt out how, to the present day, questions in developmental biology and cell sheet folding in particular are commonly approached: the.