Whether colonization is definitely transmitted in families with HIV-infected members is unknown. risk factors for colonization in families. Methods Subjects Subjects were recruited from the Maternal, Child, and Adolescent clinic at the University of Southern California from September 2004 through August 2005. This clinic consists of Rabbit polyclonal to BMPR2 HIV-infected adults, primarily women, WAY-362450 and their HIV-infected and HIV-negative offspring. Subjects were enrolled at routinely scheduled and urgent care medical appointments. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects, and the Institutional Review Panel from the University of Southern California approved the scholarly research. Data collection Clinical data had been collected by subject matter interview and medical record examine. Demographic data contains age group, gender, and competition/ethnicity. Health background obtained included previous episodes of PCP or other opportunistic infections, smoking history or smoke exposure (in children), current respiratory symptoms, and use of prophylaxis and antiretroviral medications. Laboratory data for the HIV-infected subjects included most recent CD4 cell count and serum HIV viral RNA level. Specimen collection Nasopharyngeal aspirates were obtained from children less than three years of age with 3cc of sterile saline using a 6.0 or 8.0 French suction catheter. Oropharyngeal washes were obtained from older children and adults by a one-minute gargle with 10cc of sterile saline. DNA extraction and PCR amplification DNA was extracted from oropharyngeal washes or nasopharyngeal aspirates using the DNeasy kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA). colonization was determined by nested PCR of the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA (mtLSU) as previously described . In order to prevent contamination, all steps of DNA extraction and PCR amplification were carried out in separate rooms. Negative and positive controls (DNA from lung tissue known to contain human . PCR for the human beta-globin gene WAY-362450 was performed to test for the presence of DNA and lack of PCR inhibitors . Statistical analysis Data were double-entered and analyzed using SAS version 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Continuous variables were described using mean and standard deviation or median and range depending on normality of data. Univariate analyses were performed to determine clinical variables related to Pc colonization using either t-tests/Wilcoxon ranksum or chi-square/Fisher’s exact test. Significance was determined for a p-value of less than 0.05. Results Forty-four HIV-infected adults were enrolled. Pc colonization was detected in 5 of 44 (11.3%) adults. There were no significant differences between the colonized and non-colonized adults in terms of demographic or clinical characteristics (Table 1). Most were females (93.2%) and of a minority ethnic group or race (86.4%). The mean years since HIV diagnosis was 5.7 and 34.1% had ever had an AIDS diagnosis. Only 11.4% had a CD4 cell count below 200 cells/l and many (63.6%) had a serum WAY-362450 HIV viral RNA level below 400 copies/ml. Table 1 Characteristics of adult subjects by colonization status. Sixty children, ages 2 weeks to 17.6 years, were enrolled. Colonization was recognized in two (3.3%) pediatric topics (Desk 2). These topics had been HIV-negative females significantly less than 6 months old with HIV-infected moms. Neither had a mom having a history background of PCP. One mom was getting PCP prophylaxis. Both subject matter had top respiratory system symptoms at the proper time of colonization. Colonized kids were a lot more apt to be significantly less than twelve months old (p=0.04). None of them from the colonized kids or adults were people from the equal family members. Oddly enough, all colonized adults and kids had been Hispanic (p=0.04 for assessment to all or any other competition/ethnicities). Desk 2 Features of pediatric topics by colonization position. Discussion This research is among the 1st to examine colonization in HIV-infected kids and in family members with an HIV-infected member. Surprisingly Somewhat, we discovered no proof transmission in family members and a minimal prevalence of colonization in HIV-infected adults and their offspring. There were also no clinical characteristics that distinguished colonized from non-colonized subjects in the adult population, but when examining the adult and pediatric cohorts together, colonized subjects were more likely to be Hispanic. Colonization in the pediatric population was associated with age less than one year, and there was a tendency for colonized children to have upper respiratory symptoms. We found no evidence of.