Parkinsons disease (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) share several clinical

Parkinsons disease (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) share several clinical and neuropathologic features, and studies suggest that several gene mutations and polymorphisms are involved in both conditions. was assessed by restriction fragment size polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Our results display a significant association between the C(?1562)T polymorphism in the gene and risk of PD (odds percentage?=?2.268, 95% CI 1.506C3.416, p<0.001) as well as risk of sALS (odds percentage?=?2.163, 95% CI 1.233C3.796, p?=?0.006), supporting a role for polymorphism in the risk for PD and sALS. Intro Parkinsons disease (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are neurodegenerative disorders whose etiology and pathogenesis are poorly understood. Nevertheless, numerous biochemical, environmental and genetic mechanisms have been proposed for both conditions [1]C[3]. Interestingly, numerous studies have described individuals who demonstrate a neurodegenerative overlap syndrome, comprising idiopathic parkinsonism, dementia, and ALS [4]C[8]. CD274 Epidemiological studies have shown that relatives of ALS individuals are at improved risk of developing PD [9]C[10]. In addition, studies have shown that mutations in TAR DNA-binding protein (TARDBP), variants of angiogenin (ANG), polymorphisms within axon guidance pathway genes, expanded ataxin 2 (ATXN2) repeats and hexanucleotide repeat expansions in C9ORF72 gene are involved in both PD and ALS [11]C[18]. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteases that remodel the Obatoclax mesylate extracellular matrix (ECM). Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), a major component of the basement membrane, may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimers disease, PD and ALS by inducing neuronal death [19]C. Levels of cells inhibitors of MMPs including MMP-9 are elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of individuals with PD and in the skin, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid of individuals with ALS [20], [22]C[24]. These findings linking MMP-9 to PD and ALS suggest that polymorphisms in the gene may impact susceptibility to the developing both conditions. Only few studies have examined this possibility, and the results have been inconsistent. The C(?1562)T polymorphism, in which the T allele shows higher promoter activity than the C allele [25], was found not to be associated with ALS inside a Polish population [26], while in another small population from Poland, I??ecka found out elevated levels of an Obatoclax mesylate extracellular MMP inducer in the serum of individuals with ALS, as well while an association between the levels of this inducer and the clinical severity of ALS [27]. At the same time, no data have been published within the possible association of the C(?1562)T polymorphism and PD. Therefore, we investigated a series of Chinese individuals with PD or sALS to determine whether the C(?1562)T polymorphism in the gene predisposes to either or both conditions. Subjects and Methods 2.1 Subjects In our case-control study, 351 Chinese individuals with sporadic PD and 351 healthy, ethnically matched control subjects were consecutively recruited from two movement disorder centers: Western China Hospital, Sichuan University, located in southwest China; and the First Affiliated Hospital, Obatoclax mesylate Sun Yat-sen University, located in southeast China. Clinical analysis of PD was founded by two self-employed movement disorder professionals according to approved criteria [28]. Individuals with one or more relatives diagnosed with PD were excluded. We defined early-onset PD (EOPD) as showing an age at onset <50 years (n?=?118), and the mean age of these individuals was 42.55.8 years (range 25C49). The mean age at onset of individuals with late-onset PD (LOPD; n?=?233) was 60.86.8 years (range 50C78). The control sample for PD group was composed of unrelated healthy individuals matched by age and sex. The average age for PD individuals is definitely 54.511.1 years, and for controls is 53.210.9 years. You will find no variations between PD individuals and the settings in age and gender. Individuals with sALS were recruited from three medical centers: the Division of Neurology, Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University or college, Hebei Province, located in north China; the Division of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University or college, Guangdong Province, in southeast Obatoclax mesylate China; and the Division of Neurology, Western China Hospital, Sichuan University, located in southwest China. All individuals happy the 2000 El Escorial criteria for certain or probable ALS, and all individuals and settings were ethnic Han Chinese. The control sample was composed of unrelated healthy individuals matched by age and sex. The average age for ALS individuals is definitely 52.011.5 years, and for controls is 51.012.6 years. You will find no significant variations between ALS individuals and the settings in age and gender. Separate control organizations were utilized for the PD and sALS patient groups because the average age and sex percentage of individuals with PD were significantly different from those of individuals with sALS. The protocol of this study was authorized by the Ethics Committee of all participants: Sichuan University or college, Sun Yat-sen University or college and Hebei Medical University or college. All individuals.

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