Resistin, an adipokine involved in insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes, has

Resistin, an adipokine involved in insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes, has recently been reported to play a role in cardiovascular events. suggested an essential role of resistin in linking IR and hypertension, which may offer a novel target in medical center on the study of the association between diabetes and hypertension. Hypertension, one of the impartial risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), affects approximately 70% of patients with diabetes, and the risk of CVD in diabetic patients is usually three times higher than that in healthy individuals1,2. Clinical studies suggest that insulin resistance (IR) and hyperinsulinemia, which often occur in patients with type 2 diabetes, are responsible for diabetes-associated hypertension3,4. Resistin was first identified as an adipokine with a critical role in IR5,6,7. High plasma resistin levels have been reported in patients with CVD, indicating that increased resistin may be associated with both diabetes and CVD8. Accumulating evidence has provided insight into the function of resistin, and has implicated resistin in atherosclerosis, insulin-evoked vasodilation, and endothelial dysfunction, which are complications typically associated with hypertension8,9,10. These data suggest that Dabrafenib Dabrafenib resistin could be involved in the regulation of blood pressure (BP). Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is usually a putative resistin receptor that has been proposed to contribute to resistin-induced inflammation and IR11,12. However, whether resistin and TLR4 play a role in hypertension is largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effect of resistin on BP and IR in mice and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. Results Resistin induced hypertension and insulin resistance in wild-type mice To examine the Vax2 effect of resistin on hypertension, BP was measured in WT mice treated with resistin (Retn) or PBS (Con) using the tail-cuff method. Plasma resistin levels were higher in resistin-treated group than control group, indicating our resistin treatment is successful (Fig. 1A). Both systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were markedly higher Dabrafenib in WT mice treated with resistin for 6 days [Fig. 1B, SBP: 104??6 (Retn, D0), 140??20 (Retn, D6) mmHg; DBP: 67??12 (Retn, D0), 87??15 (Retn, D6) mmHg], whereas no differences were observed in WT mice treated with PBS [Fig. 1B, SBP: 103??6 (Con, D0), 101??13 (Con, D6) mmHg; DBP: 69??11 (Con, D0), 66??8 (Con, D6) mmHg], indicating that resistin caused hypertension in WT mice. Resistin treatment increased plasma glucose and insulin levels, and IR as determined by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) (Fig. 1CCE), indicating that resistin induced IR in WT mice. Physique 1 Effect of resistin on hypertension and insulin resistance in mice. The induction of hypertension and IR by resistin is usually abrogated in mice treated with PBS [Fig. 1B, SBP in WT: 103??6 (Con, D0), 101??13 (Con, D6) mmHg; DBP in WT: 69??11 (Con, D0), 66??8 (Con, D6) mmHg; Fig. 2A, SBP in mice [Fig. 2A, SBP in resistin-treated mice [Fig. 2A, SBP in PBS-treated mice, and no differences in HOMA-IR were observed (Fig. 2D). Taken together, these data demonstrate that this action of resistin on hypertension and IR is usually mediated by TLR4. Physique 2 Effect of resistin on hypertension and IR in mice. Resistin activates the renin-angiotensin system by upregulating Agt expression To investigate the mechanistic basis for resistin-induced hypertension, the mRNA levels of certain BP-regulatory genes were measured. Resistin significantly upregulated Agt mRNA expression in the liver of WT mice, whereas it experienced no effect in mice (Fig. 3A). Plasma ANG II level, the active form of Agt, was not significantly different, although a pattern toward an increase in resistin-treated mice was observed (Fig. 3B). Comparable mRNA levels of angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and endothelin receptors A (ETA) and B (ETB) were detected in the lungs of WT and mice (Fig. 3CCF). In addition, renin (Ren), angiotensin-converting-enzyme 2 (ACE2) and angiotensin II receptor type 1a (Agtr1a) levels were not affected by resistin in WT mice (data not shown). Similar results were obtained in studies. After 24?h of resistin treatment, Agt mRNA was significantly upregulated in HepG2 cells (Fig. 3H), whereas endothelin-1 (ET-1) and eNOS levels remained constant in EA.hy 926 endothelial cells (Fig. 3I). Subsequently, siRNA was used to inhibit expression. After 24?h, Agt expression was detected in HepG2 cells. The data showed siRNA dramatically suppressed expression and this effect blocked the activation effect of resistin on Agt expression (Fig. 3GCH). These data indicated that resistin specifically stimulates Agt expression in the liver and this effect is usually TLR4-dependent. Physique 3 mRNA and plasma levels of BP-regulatory genes. As a precursor of Angiotensin I (ANG I), Agt is crucial to the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which is known as a classical blood pressure regulation system. Therefore, the transmission transduction pathway of resistin was further examined by blocking the RAS using the ACE inhibitor perindopril (peri)..

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