Powdery mildew has a negative impact on wheat production. al., 2013). Detailed studies possess indicated that most current wheat cultivars produced in China have non-effective or no genes (Li et al., 2011). It is therefore urgent to identify effective sources of resistance among germplasm from around the world to increase the existing genetic diversity. Some of the recorded loci have multiple resistance alleles, such as (Hsam et al., 1998; Singrn et al., 2003), (Ma et al., 2015a; Xu et al., 2015), (Zeller and Hsam, 1998), (Schmolke et al., 2012), (Hsam et al., 2001; Huang et al., 2003), and (Huang et al., 2000; Xue PU-H71 et al., 2012). Although, some alleles at these loci may have lost their performance, further allelic variance may be present in additional germplasm. The gene was recognized several decades ago (Pugsley and Carter, 1953), and was used as an effective resistance source in some countries (Li et al., 2011). Although, the avirulence rate of recurrence remains low in some regions of China and other parts of the world after decades of deployment, several fresh alleles (e.g., genes have been mapped to specific chromosomal loci (McIntosh et al., 2013). Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) provide a simple and effective marker system for molecular mapping in wheat (Somers et al., 2004; Sourdille et al., 2004; Xue et al., 2008). To develop high-density marker assays, high-throughput solitary nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping platforms based on wheat 9K, 90K, and even 660K SNP chips are now available (Brard et al., 2009; Lai et al., 2012; Avni et al., Rabbit Polyclonal to Cyclin A. 2014; Wang et al., 2014), and these will greatly increase the numbers of markers closely linked to targeted resistance genes. Molecular markers closely linked to targeted genes controlling valuable traits can be used to rapidly transfer them to additional cultivars. Hence, marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been practiced in many parts of the world (USA, Australia, Canada, India, and Europe) to complement conventional breeding programs (Gupta et al., 2010). A number of markers associated with recorded QTL/genes for some major economic characteristics, such as disease resistance, grain protein content material and pre-harvest sprouting tolerance, have also been utilized for MAS in wheat breeding programs (e.g., de Bustos et al., 2001; Davies et al., 2006; Nocente et al., 2007; Badea et al., 2008; Zhang et al., 2009). In this study, the wheat germplasm collection FG-1 imported from France showed a high level of powdery mildew resistance in China. To make better use of this resistance resource, the following research was carried out to: (1) determine the inheritance of powdery mildew resistance in FG-1 using an array of isolates, (2) determine the chromosomal location of the resistance gene using different kinds of molecular markers and allelism checks, (3) compare response spectra of FG-1 and lines transporting recorded genes using isolates, (4) to compare allelic variance between FG-1 and genotypes with recorded genes using SNP-derived markers, and (5) investigate the applicability of closely linked markers for MAS. Materials and Methods Flower Materials FG-1 is definitely a common wheat collection that was imported from France and managed in the germplasm lender of Shijiazhuang Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences (Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, China) of unfamiliar pedigree. It has been produced in Northern China since it was imported from France. It has resistance to powdery mildew at both the seedling and adult growth stages based on observations over many years. The susceptible Chinese cultivar (cv.) Mingxian 169 was crossed with FG-1 to study the inheritance of powdery mildew resistance. Mingxian 169 and Huixianhong were used as vulnerable controls for test of powdery mildew resistance. Several shares with recorded genes on chromosome arm 5DS, such as Ulka/8*Cc with and D57-5D with were used in multi-race response comparisons with FG-1. Thirty-one wheat cultivars representing Chinese elite germplasm were tested using molecular markers closely linked to the gene in FG-1 to validate their applicability for MAS. Phenotyping Reactions to Powdery PU-H71 Mildew Forty-nine isolates with different avirulence/virulence arrays (races) collected from different regions of China (Supplementary Table S1) PU-H71 were used to inoculate FG-1 and various sponsor lines to determine.