Objective: To investigate whether exposure to the Chinese Famine in different

Objective: To investigate whether exposure to the Chinese Famine in different life stages of early life is usually associated with cognitive functioning decline in adulthood. associated with overall and specific cognitive decline, affecting selective attention and response inhibition particularly. = 237), fetal-exposed group (age = 54C56, birth 12 months = 1959C1961, = 217), early childhood-exposed group (age = 57C59, birth 12 months = 1956C1958, 1C3 years old during the famine, = 314), mid childhood-exposed group (age = 60C62, birth 12 months = 1953C1955, 4C6 years old during the famine, = 320), and late childhood-exposed group (age = 63C65, birth 12 months = 1950C1952, 7C9 years old during the famine, = 278). Our total sample size was 1366 subjects. Demographic and clinical assessment The demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects including age, gender, years of education, way of life, family history of dementia, and medical history were collected by face-to-face interviews at the baseline evaluation. Smoking status and alcohol consumption were also ascertained. We coded smoking and alcohol as current and other. Current smoking was defined as having smoked three or more cigarettes a week during the past Dinaciclib 6 months before recruitment. Current alcohol consumption was defined as alcohol intake three or more times a week during the past 6 months before recruitment. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as excess weight (kg)/height (m2). Cognitive assessment Dinaciclib A selection of well-established and standard cognitive functioning assessments on the basis of earlier research was used to assess respondents’ cognitive overall performance, which required about 40 min to total. All the interviews were done face to face in local hospitals by nurses or researcher who experienced attended unified training several times before. All the assessments were carried out according to provided guidelines and procedures. The assessment contained the following Dinaciclib cognitive functioning assessments. The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) The Chinese version MMSE was chosen for global cognitive status across multiple domains. As a rapid cognitive screening instrument and a practical method of grading cognitive functioning, it comprises 20 individual assessments, Rabbit polyclonal to AMPK gamma1. totaling 30 points and covers 11 domains. The brevity and the broad protection of cognitive domains make it the most commonly used cognitive instrument and diagnostic test of dementia (Mitchell et al., 2014). The cutoff score for dementia applied to the Chinese residents is usually 19 for illiterate individuals, 22 for individuals with 1C6 years of education and 26 for individuals with 7 or more years of education (Zhang et al., 1999). The montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) The Beijing version MoCA is also brief 30-point assessment of global cognitive screening instrument intended to detect moderate cognitive impairment (MCI). It also provides a comprehensive assessment including a broad array of cognitive domains but incorporates expanded executive function and visuospatial items, which offers sensitivity and specificity to detect MCI patients and other cognitively impaired subjects with a normal range score around the MMSE (Gluhm et al., 2013; Lam et al., 2013). The cutoff score for MCI applied to the Chinese residents is usually 14 for illiterate individuals, 19 for individuals with 1C6 years of education, and 24 for individuals with 7 or more years of education (Lu et al., 2011). Logical memory test (LMT) The test from your Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, Dinaciclib Chinese version (WMS-RC) edited by Gong et al. (1989) was adopted to evaluate memory functions in this study. Logical memory test (LMT) provided steps of verbal memory function and capacity to recall and acquire information over brief time periods. Participants tested by LMT were required to recall two story paragraphs told by investigators immediately. Gist and verbatim scoring systems were used to evaluate the verbal recall of the story paragraphs. The stroop color and word test (SCWT) The test consists of three subtests: subtask I composed of names of four colors printed in black font (reddish, blue, yellow, and green), subtask II with patches in one of these colors and subtask III that consists of color names printed in an incongruous ink color. Each subtest displays 50 stimuli. Subjects were instructed to first read the color names (subtask I), then recognize color of the patches (subtask II), and finally name the ink color of the printed terms (subtask III) as quickly as possible. The outcome of this test.

Antibodies to neutrophil and HLA antigens can cause pulmonary transfusion reactions

Antibodies to neutrophil and HLA antigens can cause pulmonary transfusion reactions and in some cases acute lung injury. not known. In conclusion, patients and donors involved with pulmonary transfusion reactions can be quickly typed for HLA antigens and tested for HLA antibodies but testing for neutrophil antibodies and antigens requires the use of a reference laboratory. Leukocyte antigens were described more than 50 years ago using leukocyte agglutination assays. Classic leukoagglutinins included antibodies to HLA antigens and neutrophil specific antigens. The HLA antigens, a family of closely related molecules located in the same region of chromosome 6, have been studied extensively and have been found play a critical role in almost all aspects of cellular and humoral immunity. Antibodies to HLA antigens can cause acute rejection of transplanted organs, refractoriness to platelet transfusions, and transfusion reactions. Neutrophil-specific antigens are known as Human Neutrophil Antigens (HNA). HNA antigens are made up of Dinaciclib several unrelated molecules expressed predominantly if not exclusively by neutrophils. HNA antigens are a diverse group of molecules with widely different functions. Neutrophil antibodies cause neonatal alloimmune neutropenia, autoimmune neutropenia of childhood, and transfusion reactions including TRALI. While the HLA and HNA antigen systems are quite different, these two antigen systems are associated by transfusion reactions. Antibodies to both antigen systems can cause both febrile and pulmonary transfusion reactions. The identification of HLA and neutrophil antigens and antibodies to these antigens are important for the evaluation of patients and donors involved in pulmonary transfusion reactions. The methods currently used to type HLA and neutrophil antigens and screen for HLA and HNA antibodies as well as strategies to evaluate patients and donors implicated in transfusion reactions are reviewed. TYPES OF TRANSFUSION REACTIONS CAUSED BY LEUKOCYTE ANTIBODIES Antibodies to neutrophil and HLA antigens can cause Dinaciclib a variety of transfusion reactions. These include febrile transfusion reactions, pulmonary transfusion reactions in recipients of granulocyte concentrates as well as recipients of plasma made up of blood components. Febrile DLEU7 Transfusion Reactions In the 1950s Brittingham found that the transfusion of whole blood into Dinaciclib patients with leukoagglutinins could cause febrile reactions.1 Both HLA and neutrophil-specific antibodies cause these reactions. Brittingham found that these reactions could be prevented by removing the buffy-coats from the whole blood1. The risks of such reactions can now be significantly reduced in frequency and severity by transfusing leukocyte-reduced RBC and platelet components.2C4 Pulmonary Transfusion Reactions Granulocyte transfusion recipients sometimes experience transfusion reactions characterized by shortness of breath, fever, and hemoglobin oxygen desaturation.5C7 Chest x-rays in patients experiencing these reactions may uncover new or worsening pulmonary infiltrates, but the pulmonary dysfunction is usually mild to moderate in severity and resolves within a few hours. These reactions occur in granulocyte transfusion recipients alloimmunized to HLA class I or neutrophil-specific antigens. Most often they are caused by antibodies to HLA antibodies.5C7 These reactions are likely a result of antibody-antigen interactions that cause the transfused Dinaciclib granulocytes to become trapped in the pulmonary capillaries causing ventilation/perfusion mismatching and hypoxia. Plasma Made up of Blood Products can also cause pulmonary transfusion reactions. In 1957 Britthingham found that the transfusion Dinaciclib of leukoagglutinins sometimes caused severe pulmonary transfusion reactions.1 The transfusion of 50 mL of plasma with strong leukocyte agglutinins resulted in immediate faintness followed in about 45 minutes by vomiting, diarrhea, chills, fever, severe hypotension, severe tachypnea, dyspnea, cyanosis, and initial leukopenia followed by leukocytosis. The following day the transfusion recipient.

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