The filamentous fungus ATCC 36112 metabolized the triphenylmethane dye malachite green

The filamentous fungus ATCC 36112 metabolized the triphenylmethane dye malachite green using a first-order rate constant of 0. result from the consumption of treated fish (2) and from working in the dye and aquaculture industries. Malachite green is definitely highly harmful to mammalian cells; it promotes hepatic tumor formation in rodents and also causes reproductive abnormalities in rabbits and fish (13, 24). The structural similarity of malachite green to additional carcinogenic triphenylmethane dyes also increases suspicion of carcinogenicity; gentian violet (crystal violet) is definitely a thyroid and liver carcinogen in rodents (17), and pararosaniline is definitely a bladder carcinogen in humans (7). Based on the potential for adverse human health effects, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration nominated malachite green as a priority chemical for carcinogenicity screening by the National Toxicology System in 1993 (10). These studies are presently becoming carried out in the National Center for Toxicological Study, Jefferson, Ark. From an environmental standpoint, there is concern about the fate of malachite green and its own reduced type, leucomalachite green, in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, given that they occur as impurities (6, 21) and so are potential human side effects. Research over the biodegradation of triphenylmethane dyes possess centered on the decolorization of dyes via decrease reactions (4 mainly, 19, 22, 23, 25). Intestinal microflora had been shown to decrease BAY 57-9352 crystal violet (18) and malachite green (16) with their particular leuco derivatives. The fungal fat burning capacity of these substances was initially reported by Bumpus and Brock (5). The white rot fungus harvested under ligninolytic circumstances, was proven to metabolize crystal violet to three metabolites by sequential N demethylation from the mother or father compound, that was catalyzed by lignin peroxidase. In addition they reported (5) that nonligninolytic civilizations of may possibly also degrade crystal violet, however the N-demethylation items were not discovered under nonligninolytic circumstances, recommending that another system for degrading crystal violet been around in this fungus infection. The present research was carried out to determine whether the filamentous fungus is capable of metabolizing a wide range of compounds, especially by N demethylation and N oxidation (14, 20, 27, 28). Little is known about the potential of nonligninolytic fungi to metabolize triphenylmethane dyes. This paper describes the metabolic fate of malachite green by ethnicities of transformed malachite green, up to 54 M, having a first-order rate constant of 0.029 mol h?1 (mg of cells)?1. Apparently 85% of malachite green in tradition flasks (81 M) experienced disappeared after 24 h. A concentration of 108 M malachite green inhibited fungal growth, and biotransformation did not happen. The absorption spectra of samples eliminated during biotransformation indicated the wavelength (618 nm) at which malachite green exhibits its chromatic LECT feature shifted to 608 nm after 8 h of incubation. These results suggested that malachite green might be undergoing N demethylation, since the N-demethylation products possess absorption maxima at wavelengths lower than that of malachite green (B. P. Cho, personal communication). The loss of color was observed during incubation, suggesting that malachite green was reduced to its leuco- form (16). To confirm this observation, the metabolites from ethyl acetate components of ethnicities incubated with malachite green and leucomalachite green were analyzed by HPLC in combination with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry. Number ?Figure11 shows reconstructed molecular ion chromatograms from your samples extracted from your fungal BAY 57-9352 cells after 5 days of incubation. Under these conditions, the mass spectra consisted primarily of molecular ions (protonated molecules for leucomalachite green and the demethylated derivatives and cationic molecules for malachite green and its derivatives). Based on earlier reports (11, 12), these peaks correspond to malachite green (329) and its mono-, di-, and tri-desmethyl derivatives (315, 301, and 287, respectively) and leucomalachite green (331) and its mono-, di-, tri-, and tetra-desmethyl derivatives (317, BAY 57-9352 303, 289, and 275, respectively). The metabolites extracted from your culture supernatants were much like those from mycelium-extracted samples, except for malachite green N-oxide (345; retention time, 9.21 min), which was detected only in the mycelia. Control experiments with autoclaved cells did not produce a significant amount of metabolites. Only leuco- derivatives were observed as the final products of biotransformation after a prolonged incubation time (10 days), suggesting the N-demethylated malachite green metabolites were also reduced to their related leuco- derivatives. When leucomalachite green was used as the initial substrate, identical patterns of metabolites (mono-, di-, tri-, and tetra-desmethyl leucomalachite green) were observed. FIG. 1 LC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry molecular ion chromatograms acquired at 20 V from an ethyl acetate draw out of incubated.

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